Ingredients


The 48 Ingredients in Celtic Complexion that Help Nourish, Moisturize, and Beautify Your Skin
    Celtic Complexion strives to source the best raw materials for each product. We use a combination of wild-crafted, certified organic, kosher, and raw vegan ingredients.  Ingredients can be purchased from a wide spread of sources and pricing can range drastically (for raw materials).  There are also variances in quality.  Could you make the products with lower quality ingredients that from the outside seem to be the same: Yes. Do you want to: No, that's not what this company is about. This is about small batch, fresh, high quality ingredients.

   Each product advertised on this site has the complete list of ingredients. These ingredients include the essential oils and herbal extracts, carrier oils, butters, and minerals listed here, along with any scientific studies (see footnotes).

Aloe Vera:
   For centuries healers have treated burns by breaking off the tip of an aloe vera plant and rubbing it against the damaged skin. This plant was used by the peoples of Egypt, Ancient Rome, Greece, India, China for medical purposes many thousands of  years ago; Cleopatra used the gel of the aloe vera plant in her bathwater because her royal physician proclaimed it nature’s most perfect skin cleanser and moisturizer. A study in the journal Tropical Medicine and International Health found that 83% of psoriasis patients treated with aloe vera extract were cured vs. only 7.7% of those treated with a placebo. 1

Bergamont Oil:
  
A fresh, sweet, citrus scent that is familiar to many as the flavoring in Earl Grey Tea. Uplifting and relaxing, bergamont is good for building confidence and enhancing your mood. It has a long history of use for oily and troubled skin. A study in the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy found that bergamont oil reduced skin fungus in treated patients by 80%. 2

Black Willow Bark: From the willow tree, famous for its dark brown, ridged bark which is rich in tannins and salicylic acid-like materials it is found primarily in the eastern part of the continent. A natural source of salicylic acid-like ingredients, willow bark enhances skin cell turnover by promoting exfoliation. This results in a general improvement in the appearance of the skin and a smoothing effect with accompanying reduction of fine lines and wrinkles. In one study, 91% of individuals treated with black willow bark experienced an average reduction in skin redness of 48% within 56 days of application. 3

Bulgarian Rose: Considered the “Queen” of all essential oils, it is also the most costly (at $4600/lb) and rarest (it takes 60,000 petals to produce just one ounce) of oils. It has the highest oxygen levels of any essential oil, thus making it the most regenerative. It also contains flavonoids that block the sun’s harmful rays: Research shows that the oil works as a sunscreen, shielding the skin from UV radiation in the range of 270 to 300 nm. 4

Carrot Seed Oil: Carrot seed oil is one of the most rejuvenating and regenerating oils that can be used in skincare. It helps to improve the complexion by removing toxic build-up in the skin and eliminating excess water from the tissue. Rich in beta-carotene and vitamins B, C, D and E, carrot seed oil improves the complexion of the skin through its strengthening effect on red blood cells, while toning the skin and increasing elasticity and firmness. In one study, 24 patients getting radiotherapy were treated with a skin cream containing carrot seed oil. The result: a significant decrease in dermatitis. 5

Comfrey Leaf: Comfrey’s use in Chinese traditional medicine spans over 2000 years. Comfrey baths were common during the Middle Ages. Comfrey is widely known as one of nature’s greatest medicinal herbs; one German study found that wounds topically treated with a 10% preparation of comfrey healed 42% faster than those treated with only 1% comfrey. 6

Frankincense: Used for many thousands of years, frankincense – given by the three wise men to Jesus at his birth – has perhaps the greatest association with spiritual practice of any plant on earth. In Egypt, it was used to preserve mummies for thousands of years. A 2008 clinical study reported in the Journal of Environmental Toxicology found that topical application of frankincense oil to skin reduces the generation of free radicals and prevents damage to skin tissue. 7

German Chamomile: One of the most widely used botanicals, chamomile has emollient, healing, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory benefits. It also contains azulene, which helps to reduce puffiness and cleanses pores of impurities. Chamomile has great wound healing properties and is used extensively with skin problems such as rashes, acne, eczema, psoriasis, and rosacea. In an animal study, mice with dermatitis treated with chamomile oil scratched less and had lower serum histamine levels than those not treated. 8

Grapefruit Oil: Grapefruit has a high vitamin C content and is therefore valuable to the immune system. It stimulates the lymphatic system, thereby clearing the body of toxins. In addition, grapefruit helps to clear congested oily skin and also assists with acne, while toning the skin and tissues. A study in the International Journal of Applied Science demonstrated grapefruit oil’s ability to fade age spots and brighten skin tone. 9

Green Tea Extract: A rich source of antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, green tea extract helps repair the effects of aging and environmental factors. The active constituents are the polyphenols and catechins, which are potent antioxidants. One study found that green tea extract aids in production of sebum, a substance produced by the sebaceous glands produce to keep skin moisturized. 10

Indian Rose: Not as fragrant as their Bulgarian counterpart, the oil of the Indian rose is still an anti-aging powerhouse. Rich in vital nutrients essential to cell renewal, Indian rose delivers oxygen to the surface of the skin, giving it a rosy glow.

Jasmine: Jasmine is a delicate flowering plant with a pleasing scent that is often described as intoxicating, sweet, and warm. It takes about 3.5 million flowers to produce one pound of jasmine essential oil, making it one of the most costly oils to procure. Jasmine oil tones dry, oily, irritated, and sensitive skin, increases elasticity, and is often used to erase the appearance of stretch marks and reduce scarring. In an animal study, a herbal preparation with jasmine was shown to reduce the time required for wound healing by 25%. 11

Lemongrass: An herb that has been in use for years in traditional Indian medicine, this plant is a type of an aromatic or scented grass native to India that has antibacterial, astringent, and antiseptic properties; prevents and cures skin infection, stops acne breakouts; and soothes broken or inflamed skin.

Lavender: Lavender helps the skin heal itself. It stimulates cell growth, reduces inflammation, prevents scarring, and balances the production of oil. It has antiseptic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, decongestant, restorative, and therapeutic effects on the skin. A study in the Journal of Advanced Nursing indicates it may be effective in minimizing pelvic area pain following childbirth 12 and reducing redness after episiotomy. 13

Neroli Oil: This essential oil helps treat broken veins and capillaries under the skin’s surface, while at the same time it stimulates cell activity and growth which in turn leads to clearer and rejuvenated skin. Data from multiple clinical trials indicates neroli oil may possess anti-fungal properties. 14

Peppermint Oil: Peppermint’s main constituent is menthol, which imparts the famous heady, minty aroma and the remarkable “cooling sensation” when tasted or touched. Peppermint oil comprises vitamins A and C, omega-3 fatty acids, and minerals including potassium, manganese, iron, magnesium, calcium, and copper. A study in Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology suggests that low concentrations of peppermint oil may help prevent chemicals from penetrating the skin. 15

Rooibos Tea Extract: Rooibos contains a counterpart of the enzyme Super Oxide Dismutase (S.O.D.), an antioxidant that attacks free radicals and limits their damaging effects on the skin. In a study published in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science, a preparation of tea and rooibos the eased appearance of wrinkles by 10% within 28 days. 16

Rosemary Extract: Rosemary is a highly efficient antioxidant which strengthens skin elasticity and assists to slow the aging process. A study in Phytomedicine found that women treated with rosemary extract for 4 weeks achieved a significant improvement in skin firmness. 17 In a separate study, a serum containing rosemary leaf extract improved skin pigmentation between 20% and 80%. 18

Rosewood Oil: Extracted from the bark of the evergreen rosewood tree native to Peru and Brazil, 19 rosewood essential oil has analgesic, anti-depressant, antiseptic, and aphrodisiac properties. The oil has a light flowery scent with woody undertones. It is used to soothe irritated and sensitive skin. It also reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, fades scars, and promotes the growth of new skin.

Sandalwood Oil: This oil is extracted from the roots of an evergreen tree native to India so valuable that each tree is owned and controlled by the government, making the oil difficult to obtain and  costly. In a study published in the Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, 89% of adolescents and adults treated for 8 weeks with sandalwood oil and salicylic acid saw a significant improvement in their acne. 20 And an animal study, published in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention found sandalwood oil decreased the incidence of papilloma in mice by 67%. 21

Tangerine Oil: A lively and exquisitely scented essential oil, tangerine has antiseptic and toning properties which make it useful for treating acne and congested skin. A study in the Journal of Infection Control found that patients treated with a cream containing tangerine oil experienced a reduction in skin dryness and erythema, which is redness of the skin caused by superficial capillaries. 22

Tea Tree Oil: Used for centuries by the native Australian Aborigines, tea tree is one of the most potent of all essential oils. Its properties include being an anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-viral and antiseptic. In a study published in the Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 72% of patients with foot fungus who were treated with tea tree oil saw a significant clinical improvement. 23

Vanilla Extract: Vanilla oil, which has a pleasant vanilla odor, is a powerful antioxidant. It neutralizes free radicals which cause oxidation of the living cells and tissues.

Witch Hazel: An alcoholic extract from the leaves, flowers, and bark of the hamamelis tree, witch hazel is a powerful astringent. In a study published in Complementary Medicine, witch hazel was shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties useful for treating skin fungus. 24 And in a study published in the European Journal of Pediatrics, witch hazel was found to be a safe and effective treatment for certain skin disorders in children up to age 11. 25

Ylang Ylang Oil: This oil, extracted from tree blossoms, has a sweet, soft, flowery fragrance. It is extremely effective in calming and bringing about a sense of relaxation. It is used in facial cleansers to help remove excess oil from the skin. 26

Cupuacu Butter: This butter is extracted by cold pressing the seeds of the cupuacu tree, which is native to Brazil and commonly cultivated throughout the Amazonian basin. Cupuacu butter contains phytosterols that help regulate the balance and activity of the lipids in the outermost layer of the skin.

Shea Butter: Shea butter, used in Africa for many centuries, is produced from the edible nuts of the shea tree.  The butter contains vitamins A and E, which is helpful for preventing premature wrinkles and facial lines in sun-damaged skin. It is also rich in vitamin F which soothes rough, dry, or chapped skin. A study in the European Journal of Dermatology found that a shea butter preparation minimized adverse skin reactions from radiation therapy. 27 A separate study, this one published in Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, showed an 80% improvement in children with skin fungus who were treated with the shea butter formula. 28

Avocado Oil: Providing natural collagen stimulation, avocado is wonderful for skin rejuvenation. The oil is rich in vitamins A, B, D, and E as well as beta-carotene, potassium, and lethicin. Sterolins found in avocado oil can reduce blemishes and also heal sun damaged skin. A study in the Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology found that a formula containing avocado oil significantly reduced redness in the skins of patients undergoing radiation therapy. 29 In another study, a skin cream containing avocado oil reduced the appearance of wrinkles in menopausal women. 30

Beeswax: Like honey, beeswax is a natural secretion of honeybees. In a study reported in Scientific World Journal, researchers found that a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax was effective for treating dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema, and skin fungal infection. 31 Beeswax forms a protective barrier against irritants when applied to skin while still allowing the skin to breathe. 32

Coconut Oil: Coconut oil is the best natural source of essential fatty acids, which will give the skin a natural glow. It also prevents the formation of free radicals and can keep the skin from forming unsightly liver spots. It helps to keep connective tissues strong, which helps to prevent sagging of the skin. Additionally, it helps to remove the outer layer of dead skin cells, making the skin smoother.

Evening Primrose Oil: This oil is rich in essential fatty acids, especially gamma linolenic acid (GLA), which is part of the omega-6 family of oils. Essential fatty acids are responsible for the structure of the cell membrane and give skin its elasticity and mattress-like “bounce.” As an antioxidant, primrose is carried deep into the skin, plumping cells and bathing them in vital nutrients. One study found that after 28 days of applying evening primrose oil, individuals had improved skin texture and a 20% reduction in wrinkles. 33

Extra Virgin Olive Oil: Virgin olive oils are those obtained from olives without having been synthetically treated. Olive oil has a large proportion of vitamins A, D, K, and E, which is a key source of protein needed in the fight against free radicals. This makes olive oil particularly helpful in treating against skin disorders such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema. A clinical study of a baby cream containing olive oil used for 4 weeks on babies found that it smoothes, softens, and moisturizes the skin. 34

Grapeseed Oil: From the seeds of grapes cultivated in the Central valley of Chile, this oil is a good source of antioxidants, which trap free radicals generated by skin lipids. The high concentration of omega 6 fatty acids can alleviate eczema, psoriasis, and dermatitis.

Hempseed Oil: This oil is rich in omega 3 and 6 fatty acids and proteins. 35 As an anti-inflammatory, the omega-3 helps reduce skin inflammation and redness. Hempseed oil also thins skin oil, preventing clogging of pores and blackheads. An animal study found that in mice treated with hempseed oil, the hydroxyproline content of the skin increased. 36

Jojoba Beads: A natural botanical, jojoba beads are cylindrical-shaped with no hard edges. They release nourishing esters that exfoliate, leaving skin clean, soft, and hydrated. 37

Jojoba Oil: Jojoba is a perennial woody shrub grown primarily in the desert regions of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Native Americans have long used jojoba oil to help heal sores and wounds. Jojoba oil contains many important nutrients, such as vitamin E, B complex vitamins, and the minerals silicon, chromium, copper, and zinc. It also contains a lot of iodine, which helps fight against bacterial and fungal infection. In one clinical study, individuals with skin lesions applied a clay jojoba oil mask 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks. The result: a 54% reduction in lesion count. 38

Neem Oil: A vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of the neem (Azadirachta indica), an evergreen tree which is native to the Indian subcontinent and has been introduced to many other areas in the tropics. This oil has been used for centuries in traditional Indian medicine to aid in the healing of topical skin disorders such as eczema, psoriasis, rashes, burns, and acne. In a study conducted at the Wad Madani Hospital, 90.3% of subjects with skin lesions were partially or completely healed after treatment with a preparation that included neem oil. 39

Squalane Oil: Squalane is a botanical lipid that is duplicate in molecular structure and weight to human lipids. The oil can clear up eczema, dermatitis, rashes, and other skin problems when nothing else helps. Squalane has these unique abilities because the oil is naturally a major factor in skin lubrication, as well as providing germ-killing activity when it is properly concentrated in the skin. It helps to prevent the formation of brown age spots and can protect against radiation. In one study, researchers found that subjects using a cream containing squalane had significant improvement in facial skin dryness, reddening, scaling, and wrinkles. 40

Sunflower Seed Oil: Sunflower oil has been used in folk medicine for skin care and treatment of skin disorders. This oil contains beneficial amounts of vitamins A, B, D and E, minerals, lecithin, and unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic acid, which enhances the skin barrier. When used as a topical cream, sunflower oil is proven to moisturize skin. 41

Vegetable Glycerin Oil: Derived from vegetable oils, this oil is a humectant, which means it absorbs water and helps seal in moisture. In one study, 100% of patients with skin ulcers treated with a cream containing glycerin oil were cured in 14 days. 42

Cetearyl Olivate/Sorbitan Olivate: A PEG-free emulsifier, olivate is derived from olive oil, and combines the properties of olive oil with other naturally derived ingredients. Sorbitol is the alcohol form of sucrose. It occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables. It has humectant properties, which promotes the retention of water.

Cetyl Palmate: The ester of cetyl palmitate and palmitic acid, this thickener and emollient helps smooth and condition dry skin while preventing moisture loss. The ingredients that comprise cetyl palmitate are naturally-occurring fatty acids. It may be derived from animals but can also (and is usually) derived from plants or manufactured synthetically. The cetyl palmates in Celtic Complexion products are plant derived.

Iron Oxide: A natural pigment derived from minerals from the earth, iron oxide gives mineral makeup the ability to complete a flawless look in skin. 43

Palm Stearic Acid: Stearic acid is a fatty acid that comes from vegetable fats and oils. It has a cooling effect when applied to the skin. 44

Vegetable Emulsifying Wax: The wax used in Celtic Complexion products is vegetable emulsifying wax National Formulary, which is the safest emulsifier available for making creams. It is a composition of cetearyl alcohol, which is a long chain fatty alcohol, and polysorbate 60, which is a polymerized sugar. Together these molecules can interact both with water and with oils, enabling a stable emulsion.

Vegetable Glycerin: Derived from palm or coconut, GMO free, and also Kosher and allergen free, vegetable glycerin is produced using an extraction method called hydrolysis.

Vegetable Vitamin E: A potent antioxidant, vitamin E plays a crucial role in protecting skin from environmental damage, UV rays, pollutants, and aging. The d-alpha-tocopherol form of Vitamin E protects against lipid peroxidation and polyunsaturated fat, which helps to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. Although vitamin E crosses the skin barrier, it still allows the skin to breathe and function naturally. In a study published in the International Journal of Dermatology, 90% of patients with hypertrophic scars and keloids showed improvement after 2 months of treatment with topically applied vitamin E. 45

Xantham Gum: A polysaccharide (natural sugar) fermented from wood pulp, xantham gum is used to thicken and stabilize skin care products. It also has a lightening effect on facial skin. 46

Zinc Oxide: A safe, inert compound which occurs naturally as the mineral zincite, zinc oxide is insoluble in water and is considered an extremely safe, physical block against UV radiation. In one study, zinc oxide was shown to reduce skin damage in young children wearing diapers. 47

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http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1439-0507.2003.00951.x/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false Mycoses, vol. 47, issue 3-4, pp. 87-92, April 2004: Herbal medicines for treatment of fungal infections: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials by Karen W. Martin,  E. Ernst

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http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZNYX201003003.htm Central South Pharmacy, 2010: Anti-aging effect of hemp seed oil, protein and lignanamide of bama on old mice by CAI Pei1,2,FU Xun1,DENG An-gang1,ZHAN Xue-jing1,CAI Guang-ming1,LI Shun-xiang2

http://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/338076 Forschende Komplementarmendizin (Research in Complementary Medicine) vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 75-79, 2012: Clay Jojoba Oil Facial Mask for Lesioned Skin and Mild Acne – Results of a Prospective, Observational Pilot Study by Meier L.a · Stange R.a · Michalsen A.a · Uehleke B.a,b

http://parazitoloji.dergisi.org/pdf/pdf_TPD_151.pdf Türkiye Parazitoloji Dergisi vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 129-132, 2004: Treatment of Cutaneous leishmaniasis with some Local Sudanese Plants (Neem, Garad & Garlic) by Fatima A. KHALID1, Nazar M. ABDALLA1, Husam Eldin O. MOHOMED2,
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http://www2.eucerin.es/ranges/face/pdf/cutis_4.pdf Eucerin, undated, 2004 or later by the references:  Beneficial Effects of a Medical Face Care sustem in Subjects with Dry Skin by Bohnsack K.1, Balser S.2, Schölermann A.1, Filbry A.1, Rippke F.1, Küster W.3

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1525-1470.2009.01042.x/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false Pediatric Dermatology, vol. 26, no. 26, pp. 669-675, November-December 2009: The Benefits of Sumfower Oleodistillate (SOD in Pediatric Dermatology by Lawrence F. Eichenfield M.D.1, Alexandra McCollum M.D.2, Philippe Msika Ph.D.3

http://www.curapharminc.com/downloads/CuradermCreamPressureSoreComparativeStudy.pdf
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http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-4362.1995.tb00628.x/abstract International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 34, issue 7, pp. 506-509, July 1995: Vitamin E added silicone gel sheets for treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids [areas of irregular fibrous tissue formed at the site of a scar or injury] by BENIAMINO PALMIERI M.D.*, GLAUCO GOZZI M.D., GASPARE PALMIERI

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ics.12002/full International Journal of Cosmetic Science, vol. 34, issue 6, pp. 575-581, December 2012: Clinical evaluation of a dioic acid-based formulation on facial skin in an Indian population by E. Merinville1,*, A. J. Byrne2, L. Visdal-Johnsen1, G. Bouvry3, J. M. Gillbro1, A. V. Rawlings4, A. Laloeuf1

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.0926-9959.2001.00002.x/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false Journal of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 15, issue supplement s1, pp. 5-11, September 2001: Skin benefits from continuous topical administration of azinc oxide/petrolatum formulation by a novel disposable diaper by S Baldwin1,*, M R Odio1, S L Haines1, R J O'Connor1, J S Englehart1, A T Lane2